It would also apply sanctions to Iran's Revolutionary Guard and enforce an arms embargo.
Tehran says the new measures violate its 2015 deal with world powers that eased sanctions in exchange for curbs on its nuclear program, an agreement which Trump has repeatedly threatened to tear up.
The Iranian president championed a nuclear deal with the United States and five other major powers in 2015 that led to the lifting of most sanctions against Iran past year, in return for curbs on its nuclear program.
The deal has seen European countries flocking back to invest in oil-rich Iran, with the French energy giant Total agreeing to develop a new phase of the South Pars natural gas field, the world's largest.
On Tuesday, Iran's Parliament Speaker Ali Larijani announced that Tehran has officially complained to the U.N. Security Council over the latest USA sanctions. Khamenei took a tougher line, saying Iran must not fall for Washington's "tricks".
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Ayatollah Ali Khamenei gave his endorsement letter to the re-elected President Hassan Rouhani, during the ceremony for his confirmation as the Iranian chief executive, in Tehran on Aug 3, Trend's correspondent reported from the event.
The American Israel Public Relations Committee had lobbied for the sanctions.
Rouhani will be sworn in on Saturday and then have two weeks to present his cabinet to parliament for a vote of confidence.
"Transition from the most hard sanctions was achieved through a combination of the power of diplomacy and deterrent defensive power", said Rouhani.
The diplomat also said presidents of seven countries had arrived Iran by Thursday night to take part in the ceremony.
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The United States is undermining the Iran nuclear deal by imposing sanctions on the country, a ranking Iranian official said Thursday on state TV.
The deal, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), was signed in July 2015 and was implemented in January 2016. Tehran has prepared measures that Iran would take against the US action, he added without elaborating, except to say some of the measures will "improve" Iran's armed forces.
"Space launch vehicles use technologies that are closely related to those of an intercontinental ballistic missile, and this launch represents a threatening step by Iran", said a statement by the U.S. Treasury.
The Iran component ramps up sanctions for that country's missile testing, human rights abuses and backing of terrorism, and further restricts the president's ability to waive the sanctions.
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