Verstappen, who last season drew stern criticism from Ferrari drivers Sebastian Vettel and Kimi Raikkonen for his somewhat reckless style, knocked Ricciardo out of the race on Turn 2 of the first lap. Ricciardo spun into retirement on fluids from his own vehicle a corner later. He continued the race and finished fifth.
Verstappen is sixth but on almost half the points.
"He doesn't like when a teammate gets in front of him".
"[Verstappen's move] wasn't on and amateur to say the least". Verstappen finished 13 seconds behind race victor Sebastian Vettel, suggesting he would have been in a good position without the penalty.
Ricciardo was initially fuming, and the FIA was swift to blame Verstappen and impose the penalty.
"It's not like he was trying to pass, there was no room, Valtteri was in front I was on the outside, there was no room. There isn't an excuse for it".
Asked if he'd expect the team to deal harshly with Verstappen, Ricciardo said everyone would have their say.
In a second post-race feud, German driver Nico Hulkenberg called Kevin Magnussen "nasty" after the Dane shunted him into the grass. Williams super-sub Paul di Resta did the opposite, and was keeping out of trouble, but the team brought him in to retire the auto with an oil leak towards the end of the race.
Meanwhile, McLaren-Honda duo Fernando Alonso and Stoffel Vandoorne took eighth and tenth, with the Toro Rosso of Carlos Sainz sandwiched in between.
An apologetic Verstappen later described his collision with Ricciardo as unavoidable.
"It was never my intention to hit anyone and especially my teammate, who I have a good relationship with". I apologise to him and also to the team because we could have scored some good points there.
He said: "You don't know what Ferrari and Mercedes are going to come up with and it looked like Ferrari found a bit more pace this afternoon, but we're still ahead".
"It's of course not what you want".
"It was clear we had a very competitive race auto and gave nothing away to our competitors".
Team boss Christian Horner said: "It was a very frustrating race because we effectively lost Daniel and Max got a penalty in the same move".